«High-speed Railway»
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06 march

Alexander Misharin: «We have every necessary precondition to build up, economically speaking, a unified railway space»

The production of the first Moscow-Kazan HSR attracted the attention of designers, engineers, manufacturers of railway equipment and infrastructure elements not only in our country, but also far beyond its borders. First Vice-President of Russian Railways, General Director of High-Speed Rail Lines Alexander Misharin, spoke about the rail line of the future and the prospects for the development of high-speed traffic in Russia.

Question: Mr. Misharin, Moscow-Kazan HSR is the first pilot project on the creation of HSR in Russia. Will there be a demand for this service?

Alexander Misharin: Russian Railways have already an extensive experience in implementing high-speed rail line projects. For example, we have planned 47 high-speed trains in the traffic schedule for 2016/2017 of the program Daily Express. In addition, the results of the implementation of the program Introduction of Express and High-Speed Rail Traffic in the Russian Federation in 2016 show the significant demand of passengers for high-speed lines. More than 15% of long distance passengers have already switched to high-speed trains of the new generation — Sapsan, Lastochka, Strizh. The growth of passenger traffic in some destinations exceeds 100%. In short, we have begun the development of high-speed traffic, based on the experience of introducing high-speed traffic projects. Moscow-Kazan HSR will be a pilot project to start HSR network in Russia.
Question: What kind of momentum will the launch of Moscow-Kazan HSR give to the economy of our country?
Alexander Misharin: Discussing the theme of HSR in various forums, I have always corrected my counterparts, who call the construction of this most important infrastructure facility very briefly: “Moscow-Kazan HSR." In fact, this short abbreviation contains the most modern and advanced practices that exist today in the world. This, if you like, are the breakthrough technologies — from the very beginning of design and survey work and to the full occupancy of the line. The 772 km long rail line will run on the territory of seven subjects of Russia: Moscow, Moscow Region, Vladimir Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Mari El, Chuvash Republic and Republic of Tatarstan. On average, the journey time will be 3 hours and 30 minutes. It all depends on the number of stops, and there are 15 of them for the first HSR in Russia. That is why I call this project: HSR of Moscow — Noginsk — Orekhovo-Zuevo — Petushki — Vladimir — Kovrov — Gorokhovets — Dzerzhinsk — Nizhny Novgorod — Airport — Niva — Polyanka — Cheboksary — Pomary — Kazan.
There is a reason I have listed the stops of the rail line. The fact is that recent studies in the field of economic and social development of the territories show that agglomerations of two or more million people will survive in the context of the globalization of the economy. The agglomeration of less than 1 million is doomed; this can lead to depopulation — a stable reduction in population, depopulation of settlements and small towns. This is not a surrealistic picture, but a very specific situation in which the society found themselves in the 21st century. This kind of thing is not just in Russia, where the population density per square kilometer is less than in Europe, and, especially, much less than in China.

Therefore, HSR will link seven regions together, while the mobility of the population will increase many times over. It will become commonplace to commute to work from Cheboksary to Kazan. The same holds true for travelling from Petushki to Vladimir or Nizhny Novgorod. So if people have a steady job, then many will begin to think about starting a family, which means that they will need accommodation, preschools and schools. It is profitable from both an economic and social point of view to live in the agglomeration, as today does the majority of the population of many countries of the world, for example, in Japan, China, France and Germany. Moreover, the role of HSR in this unification process is key. After all, the rail line is nothing more than an interregional metro, which will operate at intervals of 30-40 minutes at the first stage. If passenger traffic increases, a decrease in the interval is possible. Convenient, isn’t it?

Question: Of course, it is convenient! No one argues with this statement. However, ticket price may be excessively high, don’t you think so?

Alexander Misharin: At a certain point, the cost of tickets can be slightly higher than the usual price for a trip, say, in a second-class car or a night train car. However, the passenger has a choice. In high-speed trains, cars of four classes are supposed to operate: first class, economy class, business class and cheapest one — tourist class. Just come to think of it: a passenger of a high-speed train will get a tourist class ticket, and will travel, like a first-class passenger, at a speed of 350 km/h!

Question: Let us also consider another situation: will not the reduction of time on the way to Moscow lead to the opposite effect: the population of the regions will gush into the capital?

Alexander Misharin: There is no such risk. Sociologists say that many people prefer to look for work either in the place of residence or in neighboring regions. That is why HSR is designed in such a way that it unites regions and cities great economic and industrial potential. For example, Kovrov, Dzerzhinsk are cities with stable jobs, there are defense enterprises, Orekhovo-Zuevo — a major railway junction, Cheboksary and Kazan — the capital of the republics. The labor market is changing. These are the realities of globalization around the world. Therefore, it is by no means a coincidence that today the main lobbyists of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces are governors of the subjects of the Federation and mayors of cities through which the route will pass. All in fact see, what effect the "Strizh" train gives, and it's still far from HSR. And how was Tver transformed after the launch of Sapsan and Swallows?! During these years, she from a provincial city turned into one of the fast growing cities — the satellites of Moscow. It is already estimated that due to multiplicative effects after construction, the additional growth of the domestic regional product in the first 10 years of operation of HSR will be from 27 to 76%.

One more factor should be taken into account. I have already spoken about agglomerations and the conditions for their survival. I will add to this: such agglomerations as Moscow, uniting more than 20 million people, is also a kind of dead end. We can not develop the capital indefinitely due to the development of all the new territories of the Moscow region? Where are we going — to the borders of the neighboring regions of the Federation? Agree, this is an irrational policy.

— At what stage is today the design? Everyone cares when will the construction begin?

— We plan to complete the design of HSR in May-June 2017. The departmental expertise of Russian Railways on the design documentation of a number of sections (Zheleznodorozhny — Vladimir) has already passed, a positive conclusion of the public technological and price audit for the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod section from Ernst & Young — valuation and consulting services LLC, documentation for the first site In the examination. These are not just projects — they are technological innovations and new solutions that are created by Russian design institutes.

— You want to say that the design of HSR is a kind of challenge to domestic science, engineers, designers, who have to solve very complex technological tasks in a short time?

— Yes, this is a very serious challenge, and our designers, engineers honor it with honor. They solve not only purely technical problems, but also a variety of others. After all, the project HSR — a project for life and for people. When designing, the features of the route, and the wishes of local administrations for the location of stations and the development of station areas were taken into account. The designers used not only all modern technologies of HSR, but also took into account the geological, natural, historical, cultural and social characteristics of the regions, as well as the capabilities of the Russian production base for implementing the proposed approaches.

— The first calculations of the cost of the Moscow-Kazan HSR were carried out more than three years ago. What has changed over this time?

— During this time, the economic situation has dramatically changed and the prices for many materials, components and types of work have grown. Therefore, in the process of designing, our specialists have to solve a double task: on the one hand, to search for optimal design solutions, and on the other — not to go beyond the pricing policy that was laid at the beginning of the creation of this project.

I assure you that it is extremely difficult to observe such a balance-it requires all participants in the process to have outstanding abilities. The last price audit showed that we did not go beyond the approved prices, all works are carried out in full accordance with the laid standards. Thanks to this, the estimated cost of the project remains within the acceptable budget limits.

— Moscow-Kazan HSR project has already reached the stage of the State Expertise, so that its implementation will soon begin. I wonder what innovative technologies will be used in the construction?

— Each section of the project documentation contains innovative solutions. Almost there will be no usual sleepers and rubble. They will be replaced by a ballastless top track structure, the use of which will significantly increase economic efficiency and improve the performance of the highway. The ballastless path is a monolithic concrete structure with intelligent sensors built in it that allow monitoring the state of the structure itself and monitoring the condition of the track during the entire service life. For example, in the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod section, the length of the rail track on a ballastless base is almost 72% for the project. And this rightfully can be considered a breakthrough innovation, which will lead to a change in the established technology of construction and maintenance of the track, the standards of the way and the new requirements for rolling stock.

In the design of a roadbed designed for HSR, too, there are elements of innovation. When designing, the requirements for strength, resistance to deformations of the roadbed were taken into account, taking into account the vibrodynamic effect of the trains. The prerequisite was the minimization of costs. Thus, it is provided for the installation of two protective layers of the roadbed along the entire length of the high-speed railway of at least 2.5 m of total height.

To ensure technological and price unity of design solutions, unified structures of artificial structures (ISSO) were developed. They include structures for the BCM section with speeds up to 200 km / h and up to 350 km / h. The basis of unification was the span structures of ISSO, first developed for high speeds.

Not left without attention and electricity. For the first time the contact network is designed for the speed of trains up to 400 km / h. It is developed on the basis of mathematical modeling of dynamic interaction with current collectors of electric rolling stock. The contact network CS-400 uses a number of innovative technical solutions for Russia in terms of nodes and structures. These are the contact wires made of heavy-duty copper-magnesium or copper-chromium-zirconium alloys, foundations in the form of bored piles, supporting and supporting structures of increased rigidity, drum compensators with sliding bearings, and a number of other innovations.

Throughout its entire history, HSR is a single high-tech innovative project. We do not use here previous developments and technologies — they are hopelessly outdated and do not suit the road of the XXI century.

— The Russians appreciated the advantages of high-speed Sapsanov, although this is not even HSR. However, there were problems for many residents of cities and towns, through which they pass, because for a long time the railway crossings overlap and there are traffic jams.

— When developing the project of the Moscow-Kazan HSR, we took into account the mistakes of the past and made appropriate conclusions. I assure you that there will be no traffic jams and the highway will not cause any inconvenience to the inhabitants of nearby settlements. The BCM route crosses a large number of highways, but nowhere along the route it crosses the existing road network in one level. There will be tunnels and overpasses, which will "dissolve" rail and road traffic. According to the project, new sections will be built and a number of existing roads strengthened for the organization of traffic for the period of construction and further maintenance of the route.

— This year is declared the Year of Ecology in the country. Tell us about the technical solutions aimed at maintaining the ecological balance in the zone of attraction of HSR?

— The first thing that cares residents of houses located next to the highway — it's noise. In order to further reduce the vibration effect in the upper structure of the track, it is envisaged to lay sub-ballast mats and geocomposite material. This will significantly reduce the level of physical impacts (noise and vibration) in the surrounding areas. According to the experience of other countries, it is known that the noise level on high-speed highways is much lower than for conventional ones. In addition, in residential areas are planned to plant soundproof forest belts, install noise-proof (acoustic) screens, etc. Measures have been developed to protect the plant and animal life. As agreed with the regional offices, the migration of wild animals provides for the construction of special transitions through a high-speed railway. A complex of local wastewater treatment facilities will be constructed to clean storm water from the territories of infrastructure facilities. Comprehensive environmental monitoring will be carried out throughout the entire construction and operation of the facility. It's not for nothing that specialists call HSR the most "green" mode of transport. After all, its emissions into the atmosphere of combustion products of CO2 — 4 times lower than that of aviation, and 3.5 lower than cars, and energy efficiency — 4 times higher.

— Moscow — Kazan will be the first "swallow" of HSR network in Russia. And what next, how will this type of rail transport develop?

— And then there will be an extension of the route to Yekaterinburg, the construction of the Moscow-Center-South highway with stops in Tula, Voronezh, Krasnodar and Sochi and construction of HSR to the Northern capital. And the most ambitious will, of course, be the implementation of the ambitious project of the XXI century — the Eurasian high-speed transport corridor Moscow-Beijing. We have all the prerequisites to create a uniform railway in the economic sense from the borders with the APR countries to the borders of the European Union. And the future transport corridor can be used both for passenger transportation, and for providing high-speed delivery of goods. Modern approaches, innovative rolling stock and technology offer completely new opportunities in the transportation process.

— Did foreign partners take part in designing our HSR and what did they offer?
— More than 60 specialized design institutes and organizations led by the Russian-Chinese project consortium were involved in the work. Experts of the Expert Council (MIIT) are involved in scientific and technical support, and French companies SISTRA and SNCF (French Railways) are involved in technical consulting for the design. The main problem is the lack of regulations and requirements for infrastructure facilities to implement speeds of up to 400 km / h.

Therefore, 15 special technical conditions for the design and construction of HSR were developed — they were agreed by the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation in 2016.

— Will domestic manufacturers produce high-tech equipment for HSR, as well as rails, sleepers and other infrastructure elements?

— The project stipulates that during construction of HSR, structures and materials produced in the Russian Federation using foreign technologies will be used. The level of localization will be at least 80%. Famous domestic and foreign manufacturers want to take part in construction works. So, for example, the constructions of the bevelless structure of the road were offered by JSC "BetElTrans", JSC "RZDstroy" and Malinovsky Combine of concrete products. Rails with the specified requirements are planned to be produced by domestic enterprises of LLC "UK Mechel-steel" and LLC TC "EvrazHolding". Rail fasteners — two domestic manufacturers — JSC "BetElTrans" and JSC "Severstal", switch units — Murom and Novosibirsk switch plants. Elteza CJSC and Termotron plant were involved in the development of electronic and mechanical components of turnouts. The quality of the products they offer fully complies with the requirements of JSC Russian Railways. We have plenty to choose from.

— Which countries' experience will be used in the construction of HSR and what technologies are planned to be applied, adapting them to the Russian conditions?

— The design uses the experience of countries that have a branched network of BCM. For example, Germany, France, China, Italy, Japan, etc. The implementation of speeds of up to 400 km / h requires high accuracy, so we note the use (creation) of a modern geoinformation system based on satellite technology data using GPS and GLONASS systems.

As a top structure of the way, bezbollast constructions are designed, which until now have not been operated on the railways of the Russian Federation, with the exception of prototypes on the VNIIZhT Experimental Ring and several overpasses and bridge structures. Unified spans, supports and support parts have been developed, including on extra-class bridges across the rivers Klyazma, Oka, Sura and Volga. In the field of automatics and telemechanics, the project provides for the use of microprocessor systems to ensure reliable equipment performance. The project also has a special sub-section — "Energy Efficiency", which is one of the basic requirements for the projected subsystems of high-speed rolling stock and their power supply systems.

Speaking about innovative technologies, we can not help talking about the new high-speed train for HSR. It will use the latest technology, and its production will be localized in Russia. It is important not only to build, but also competently operate both the rolling stock and the infrastructure. Therefore, right now we are training personnel for HSR. There are still a lot of work. Ahead of us is waiting for the construction of the first section of the BCM. And then our projects and plans will have already visible features.

Source: Gudok newspaper

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